California NanoSystems Institute
CNSI
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March 14, 2006

Herbert Goronkin
Technology Acceleration Associates


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Current Status of Nanoelectronics in the U.S.
As nanoelectronics has evolved from basic research on materials and characterization instruments into simple functional devices, so have investors begun to move from funding technologies at the bottom of the food chain to higher value applications that are enabled by nanomaterials in device structures. Of the myriad current research directions, which have promise to emerge as viable commercial products and which are more likely to remain in the lab as characterization tools or curiosity driven research projects? This talk reviews a sampling of nanoelectronic subjects that lie in one of three phases: proof-of-concept, feasibility or development and winds up with a matrix of relative maturity in terms of possible commercialization. My selection of research and technology topics may be controversial. Audience input will be welcome.

March 08, 2006

Edward H. Sargent
Professor
Canada Research Chair in Nanotechnology
Edward S. Rogers Sr. Department of Electrical Computer Engineering
University of Toronto

Poster


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The Dance of Molecules: How Nanotechnology is Changing our Lives
Nanotechnology is coordinated movement: a choreographed dance among atoms and molecules to achieve a desired effect. Nanotechnology seeks to harmonize with Nature's own set of rules to coax matter to assemble into new forms. The resulting materials exhibit striking beauty when viewed in an electron or optical microscope, often even with the naked eye. Their purpose is to produce breakthroughs in medicine, computing, and energy.

Nanotechnology is not a new science. For four billion years, Nature has organized atoms into simple molecules, molecules into proteins, proteins and sugars and fats into complex societies of cells, and cells into the life that surrounds us. Nature builds using an array of one hundred distinct atomic elements. She is rigorously disciplined, limiting herself to a small set of simple, but powerful, rules. With a modest set of elements deployed subject to rigorous rules, Nature invents limitless variety, beauty, form, and purpose.

Read a sample chapter from "The Dance of Molecules."

March 07, 2006

Stuart Parkin
Manager, Magnetoelectronics
IBM Almaden Research Center
San Jose, California



Streaming Video
  
Poster

The Magnetic Race Track - A Storage-Class Memory Using Current Driven Motion of Domain Walls in Magnetic Nano-Wires
A proposal for a novel storage-class memory is described in which magnetic domains are used to store information in a "magnetic race-track". The magnetic race track is comprised of tall nano-columns of magnetic material arranged perpendicularly to the surface of a silicon wafer. The domains are moved around the race-track by current pulses using the phenomenon of spin momentum transfer: experiments demonstrating the current induced moment of domain walls in magnetic nano-wires will be discussed. The domain walls in the magnetic race-track are read using magnetic tunnel junction sensing devices arranged in the silicon substrate. The magnetic shift register promises a solid state memory with storage capacities and cost rivaling that of magnetic disk drives but with much improved performance and reliability.

This is a joint CNSI / FENA Seminar

March 03, 2006

Dieter Seebach
ETH Zürich
Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences

Poster

The World of b-Peptides

A joint CNSI/Organic Chemistry Seminar

Abstract:
The lecture will cover the following topics: (i) origin of our work on b-peptides, i.e. an investigation of the biopolyesters PHA (poly- (b-hydroxy-alkanoates)), (ii) preparation of b- and g-amino acids, (iii) synthesis of b-peptides, (iv) the surprising solution structures of b- and g-peptides, (v) biochemical, biological, and physiological investigations of peptides consisting of homologated proteinogenic amino-acid residues; (vi) do b-peptides have a biomedical potential?

February 14, 2006

Iwao Ohdomari
Professor, School of Science and Engineering,
Director, Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Waseda University (Japan)



Streaming Video
  
Poster

Creation of Functional Surfaces by Means of Nanoscale Modification of Solid Surfaces with Energetic Particles

Abstract:
In order to create functions such as electron emission, catalyst, local electric charges, molecule immobilization, and molecule recognition, we take advantage of nano-scale modification of solid surfaces with energetic particles and the subsequent wet chemical processing in wafer scale. In this seminar, I will describe the elemental steps for creating functions. They are (1) nanoscale observation of solid surfaces modified with energetic particles, (2) nanoscale modification of semiconductors with single ion implantation, (3) silicon nanostructure fabrication and its applications, and (4) development of nano-scale process simulator.

References:
T. Shinada, S. Okamoto, T. Kobayashi and I. Ohdomari, : Nature 437, 1128-1131 (2005). Guo-Jun Zhang, Takashi Tanii, Tamotsu Zako, Takumi Hosaka, Takeo Miyake, Yuzo Kanari, Takashi Funatsu and Iwao Ohdomari:Small 1, 833-837 (2005).

February 07, 2006

Lars Montelius
Lund University (Sweden)


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Poster

Nanoimprint Technology for Nanomechanics, Electronics and Life Science Applications

Abstract:
Nanoimprint lithography show great promises as an emerging technology allowing rapid nanostructure pattern definition over large areas. In this talk I will discuss prospects and challenges and its use for fabrication of cantilever based grating structures allowing a dynamic control of sub-wavelength grating period and pitch. I will show such structures usefulness for optics (diffraction/reflection), electronics (tunable RF-filter)l and as biosensors (mass detection). Further, I will discuss about chemically surface functionalized topographical nanostructures allowing a nanometer-level control of molecular motors. Finally, I will discuss about surfaces for neural cell guidance and growth using lateral position control of epitaxially grown nanowires.

Biography:
Lars Montelius, Professor in the division of Solid State Physics & The Nanometer Consortium, and Dean of Physics Department, Lund University, Sweden. LM has 17 years of experience in Nanoscience, more than 110 scientific publications, more than 150 conference contributions, and about 50 personally invited conference/workshops talks. LM has filed 13 patents in the area of nanotechnology. He is presently the leader of the Exploratory Nanotechnology group within the Nanometer Consortium at Lund University. His primary research interests are on exploratory nanotechnology such as advanced electron & ion beam and nanoimprint lithography, scanning probe microscopy, nanomechanics (NEMS) and their applications in Biophysics, bringing nanotechnology to the life sciences. In this field he is engaged in controlling and using motor proteins on structured surfaces, axonal outgrowth on nanostructured surfaces, contacting nerve cells for communication with the nervous system as well as development of mega-dense protein chips based on antibody-antigen reactions on the nanoscale. He and his research group participate in numerous national, international as well as European projects among which LM has been PI and coordinator. LM is also a director of the board for Obducat AB, Malmo and co-founder of several spin-off companies such as nQuip AB.

January 31, 2006

Linda Demer
UCLA Medical Center, Cardiology

Poster

Artery Wall Calcification: Nanocrystals With Nanovesicles, Nanoparticles, or Nanobacteria?
No longer considered a passive process of amorphous crystal deposition, vascular calcification is now recognized as a regulated process that recapitulates embryonic bone formation. Imaging of mineral samples from both bone and artery wall reveal nano-sized spherical structures intimately associated with hydroxyapatite nanocrystals and collagen fibers. This talk will include evidence (1) for and against their identity as matrix vesicles, lipoproteins, and/or putative nan(n)obacteria, (2) that the process involves self-organization of stem cells into patterns under the direction of molecular morphogens following reaction-diffusion dynamics, (3) that predictions from a system of partial differential equations governing diffusion of the morphogen, bone morphogenetic protein, and its inhibitor, matrix GLA protein, are confirmed in tissue culture, and, in preliminary studies, that these stem cells can be cultured on synthetic nanostructures.


January 24, 2006

Peter Grutter
Physics Department, McGill University (Canada)


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Poster

From Nanoelectronics to Biomolecular Sensing: Beware of Cartoons!

Abstract:
One of the central issues in nanoelectronics is the role of electrical contacts. In the first part of this talk I will present recent results obtained by our group on atomically defined contacts between two metal surfaces using a combined UHV STM/AFM/FIM system. One contacting wire is a surface atomically characterized by STM, while the second contact is made a field ion microscopy (FIM) characterized tip (see figure). The power of this approach is that there are no fudge parameters when comparing experimental results to modeling, the position of every single atom of the system is experimentally determined! I will present results using this technique to study W tip- Au(111) sample interactions in the regimes from weak coupling to strong interaction and simultaneously measure current changes from pA to µA (PRB 71, 193407 (2005), ). Close correlation between conductance and interaction forces in a STM configuration was observed. In particular, the electrical and mechanical points of contact are determined based on the observed barrier collapse and adhesive bond formation, respectively. Ab initio calculations of the current as a function of distance in the tunneling regime is in quantitative agreement with experimental results. The obtained results are discussed in the context of dissipation in non-contact AFM as well as electrical contact formation in molecular electronics.



FIM manipulation and charactrization of W(111) tip. Each white 'blob' is a W atom. The final result is a three atom tip (right). Careful image analysis allows us to determine the position of the last 100 atoms of this 'contact electrode'.

In the second part I will concentrate on cantilever based biochemical sensing. We have investigated a model system, alkanethiol adsorption on a Au coated microfabricated AFM cantilever as a model system to understand the origin of stress in this sensor platform. We find that the kinetics of SAM formation and the resulting SAM structure are strongly influenced both by the surface structure of the underlying gold substrate and by the impingement rate of the alkanethiol onto the gold surface. In particular, large-grained gold substrate promote a vertical (standing-up) orientation of SAMs which is clearly inhibited in the case of a small-grained gold substrate (Langmuir 2004, 20, 7090). Extending these measurements by using the cantilever as a reference electrode in a full electrochemical setup allows us to elucidate the origin and magnitude of surface stress resulting from different molecular recognition events (J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 17531 (2005)). We find that optimizing the sensor response needs efficient charge transfer to the Au layer - an unexpected conceptual connection to contact issues in molecular electronics!

Biography:
Peter Grutter did his PhD at the University in Basel 1986-1989 in the field of Magnetic Force Microscopy. After stays at the IBM Almaden Research Center in the 'Exploratory Storage Studies' group and at the IBM Zurich Research Labs in 'Ultramicroscopy' he joined the Physics Department at McGill University in Montreal in 1994. His group works on developing tools, mainly scanning probe microscopy based, and applying them to problems in nanoscience, in particular nanoelectronics. He won the NSERC E.W.R. Staecie award (2001), was appointed a William Dawson Scholar by McGill University (2001)and won a CIAR Young Explorer Prize ('Top 20 under 40 in Canada' in 2002). He is the Scientific Director of the NSERC NanoInnovation Platform, Fellow and Director of the Nanoelectronics and Photonics program of the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIAR). Furthermore, he is a member of the scientific committee of NanoQuebec, on the board of directors of the Quebec Strategic Regroupment in Advanced Materials and an Associate Member of CRCN (Centre de recherche sur le cerveau, le comportement et la neuropsychiatrie) as well as the Chemistry Department at McGill. In 2005 he won the Rutherford Memorial Medal in Physics from the Royal Society of Canada and was appointed Fellow of the RSC. In addition, he was awarded the Carrie Derick Award for Excellence in Graduate Supervision and Teaching at McGill.
January 17, 2006

James Gimzewski
Chemistry and Biochemistry,UCLA


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Poster

New Uses of Nanometer Technologies
Developments of mechanical probes such as Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) promulgated new paradigms that bypass wave optics through direct tactile sensing of atoms and molecules. Probe-sample proximity naturally evolved into controlling matter mechanically. Unlike chemical, electromagnetic or chemical probes, nanomechanical experiments of biological systems are relatively unexplored territory and practically every signal domain is transduced or tranducable into a nanomechanical response. In the sense we also will outline interferometer detection and imaging capabilities methods with picometer vertical resolution and the role of thermal processes. Mechanical information is immediate and generally non-perturbing since it can operate at energies approaching background thermal energy. I describe recent research where we have taken mechanical probes with "Ultimate Limits of Measurement" capability and used in experimentation on various biological systems. Using single atom manipulation capabilities we show that direct, non-amplified identification of single DNA molecules is possible via the precise mapping of short 4bp and 6bp sequences on single, surface-fixed cDNAs derived from RNA or directly on plasmids. This capability opens the way to profile at the single cell level. I will also present results on the observations of mechanical properties of Cells and possible implications for a new for of direct medical diagnostics. Nanomechanical studies of this type also raise fundamental questions into architectonic design principles in Nanosystems. Beyond possible bio-mimetic inspiration and exploration of utilizing stochastic fluctuations, they open up new inspirational freedom in nanosystem design, assembly and operation using soft matter. A variety of examples of nanomechanical studies will be outlined such as correlation of social behavior, genetic mutants and nanostructures of slime mold bacteria, bio-film formation on tooth enamel, metamorphosis of the Monarch Butterfly, and the use of probe tips with ferroelectrics operating at high energies. These studies are collaborative with the UCLA in the Schools/Departments of Dentistry, Medicine, Engineering, Physics, and Media Arts as well as a variety of Companies.