California NanoSystems Institute
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February 28, 2012

Chun-Hua Yan
State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications
Peking University, China
Nanosized Rare Earth Materials: Controllable Synthesis, Assembly and Applications
Abstract: In this talk, several typical rare earth nanomaterials are selected to demonstrate the coordination effect on the control of structure/microstructure/texture, surface/interface, particle size and morphology. With using some solution-based methods including solvothermal treatment and the thermolysis of metal complex precursors, a series of novel nanostructured rare earth compounds, such as ultra-small colloidal ceria nanoparticles, highly homogenous and stable ceria-zirconia solid solutions, and high-quality rare earth oxide and fluoride nanocrystals, etc., have been prepared by elaborately controlling the synthetic parameters and reaction kinetics. The assembly of the rare earth nanocrystals has also been studied. In order to reveal the mechanisms of synthesis and properties, the phase, microstructure, texture, and surface state have been characterized systematically. It is demonstrated that these rare earth nanocrystals could serve as good candidates for wide applications such as UV-absorbents, three way catalysts, high efficiency up-conversion phosphors and biolabel materials.

Bio: Professional Career: 1988-present Lecturer (1988), Associate Professor (1989), Professor (1992), Cheung Kong Professor (1999), Peking University 2005-present Honorary Professor of Chemistry, The University of Hong Kong 1992, 2004 JSPS Visiting Professor, Tokyo Science University and IMS (1992), Osaka University (2004), Japan 1993 RS Senior Visiting Fellow, York University, England 1996, 2001 Visiting Professor, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Korea 2004 Visiting Professor, Kyoto University, Japan 1999-present Director, State Key Lab of Rare Earth Mater. Chem. & Appl., PKU 1998-2010 Vice President, Chinese Society of Rare Earth 1998-present Chief-Scientist on Rare Earth Functional Materials in China, Ministry of Science and Technology of China 2001-present Executive Editor-in-Chief, J. Rare Earths (Elsevier) 2007-present Editor, Materials Research Bulletin (Elsevier) 2009-present Member of the Editorial Advisory Board, Chemistry of Materials (ACS) Recent Research Interests: Our research is focused on the controllable synthesis, assembly, and properties of rare earth functional nanomaterials, so as to apply them into the practice. At present, our topics of research are as follows: (1) Fabrication and characterization of the nanosized rare earth functional materials; (2) Self-assembly of the rare earth molecular materials; (3) Optimized design and automation of rare earth separation processes. Honors: During the past two decades, more than 20 academic awards have been received, including the State Natural Science Award of China, the 2nd Grade (2006) and 3rd Grade (1988), the National Award of Science and Technology Progress of China, the 2nd Grade (1999) and 3rd Grade (1991), "Research Prize for Youth Scientists" awarded by the Hok Ying Dong Education Foundation, "Prize for Outstanding Youth Scholar" awarded by Hong Kong Qiushi Science and Technology Foundation (1995), and AkzoNobel Chemical Sciences Award 2010 presented in partnership with the Chinese Chemical Society.

February 21, 2012

Dr. Yasuhiko Arakawa
Arakawa & Iwamoto Laboratories; NanoQuine and IIS
The University of Tokyo
Light-matter interaction in single quantum doy - 2D/3D photonic crystal nanocavity coupled systems
Bio: Yasuhiko Arakawa received a B.S. degree in 1975 and a Ph.D. degree in 1980, respectively, from the University of ¬Tokyo, both in Electronics Engineering. Dr. Arakawa’s first professional association was with the University of Tokyo as an Assistant Professor in 1980. In 1981 he became an Assistant Professor at the University of Tokyo. In 1993, he was promoted a Full Professor of the University of Tokyo. He is now a Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo and also the Director of Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, the University of Tokyo. From 1984 to 1986 for two years, he was a visiting scientist of California Institute of Technology. He was also a Visiting Professor at Technical University of Munich (2009-11). He has been a member of Science Council of Japan since 2009.

Dr. Arakawa’s main achievement includes proposal of the concept of quantum dots and their application to quantum dot lasers (‘82), pioneering theoretical and experimental work on quantum size effects on lasing dynamics in semiconductor lasers (‘84–‘86), discovery of exciton-polariton Rabi--vacuum oscillation in semiconductor nanocavity (‘92), discovery of continuum in density of states in quantum dots by PLE (‘92), the achievement of high temperature stability in high speed quantum dot lasers (‘04) , the first demonstration of single photon sources at telecommunication wavelength (‘04) , the highest operation temperature of 200 K achieved in all-solid single photon sources by using GaN quantum dots (‘06), realization of a single artificial atom laser with 2D photonic crystal nanocavity (’10), the first 3D photonic crystal nanocavity lasers with quantum dot gain (’11), and theoretical prediction of detailed balance of the efficiency of quantum dot solar cells over 75% (’11) .

Dr. Arakawa is a Fellow of the IEEE, OSA, JSAP and IEICE. He has published about 480 papers in scientific journals and has given invited talks more than 250 times at international conferences. He received numerous awards, such as IBM Science Award (‘92), ISCS Quantum Device Award (‘02), IEEE/LEOS William Streifer Scientific Award (‘04), Leo Esaki Prize (‘04), The Wall Street Journal Technology Innovation Runner-Up Award (‘06), Fujiwara Prize (‘07) and Prime Minister Award (‘07), Medal with Purple Ribbon (‘09),, IEEE Davis Sarnoff Award (’09), Heinrich Welker Award (’11), and OSA Nick Holonyak Jr. Award (’11).

February 07, 2012

Jeffery A. Steevens
Senior Scientist in Biotechnology US Army within the Environmental Laboratory at the US Army Engineer Research and Development Center in Vicksburg, MS
Developing Safe Nanotechnologies for the Soldier
Abstract: Engineered nanoparticles are being exploited for a wide variety of military applications. Material science research into the development of new engineered nanoparticles is far outpacing environmental and human health and safety research, yet the health and safety data are critical for acquisition decisions, regulatory decisions, worker safety, product use and disposal, and public acceptance of nanoparticle-containing products. Traditional life cycle analyses address key steps in nanoparticle synthesis, use, and disposal, but lacks specific information regarding fate and effects in the environment. Conversely, traditional environmental risk assessments address fate and effects of chemical stressors in the environment, but only consider chemicals at specific environmental sites and not throughout the chemical’s life cycle. We are developing and applying the comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA) approach, detailed by Davis (2007), which combines life cycle analysis parameters (e.g., manufacture, storage, use, disposal) with traditional risk assessment parameters (e.g., characterization, exposure, effects, assessment) to understand of nanoparticle exposure and effects in different environmental settings. The application of this approach is demonstrated through a case study examining novel nano-based thermites; a mixture of nanoscale metal fuel and oxidizer. Specifically, we have examined the residue of nanometal-based energetics following ignition; the most likely release of nanoparticles from a specific nanotechnology. Results of this study represent one of the first documented releases of a nano-sized particulate from a nano-enabled technology. The use for CEA for engineered nanoparticles will improve acquisition, risk, and regulatory decision making and management prior to any unforeseen adverse environment, health, and safety (EHS) events that could dramatically impact the use of these revolutionary new materials.

Bio: Dr. Jeffery A. Steevens is the Senior Scientist in Biotechnology for the US Army within the Environmental Laboratory at the US Army Engineer Research and Development Center in Vicksburg, MS. He obtained his bachelor’s degree in biochemistry from the University of Missouri at Columbia in 1994 and his doctorate degree in pharmacology and toxicology from the University of Mississippi in 1999. As the ERDC’s lead scientist in biotechnology he is responsible for leading the basic and applied research that focuses on innovation in science and engineering to support the peaceful and wartime mission of the soldier. In addition to this research, he also leads environmental research for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. His research activities include risk assessment and management of contaminated sediments, bioavailability and biological effects of military-relevant materials (e.g., explosives, nanomaterials, metals). One of his current responsibilities is leading a multi-disciplinary ERDC research cluster focusing on the fate, transport, and toxicology of military nanomaterials and nano-enabled technologies. In addition to his research on nanomaterials, he is also a technical advisor to the World Bank on international projects, EPA Superfund Program, and provides expertise on many contaminated sediments projects throughout the U.S. His recent research activities have included leading a technical response to the recent Deepwater Horizon oil spill, response to the TVA fly ash spill in Tennessee, red mud spill in Hungary, and several Superfund sites.

Dr. Steevens has actively published the results of his work and has over 40 peer-reviewed journal publications and 20 book chapters and technical reports. In addition he is on the editorial board for the journal Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. He is an active member of several national organizations including the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, American Chemical Society, and Society of Toxicology. Dr. Steevens is a Technical Advisor for nanomaterials work group for the Chemical and Material Risk Management Directorate (CMRMD), Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense. Currently he is a technical advisor to the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) and is a coauthor of the U.S. Nanotechnology Initiative Strategic plan. He has directed international advanced research workshops for NATO on sustainability and nanomaterials.

Event Flyer

January 24, 2012

Zbigniew Celinski
University Colorado, Colorado Springs
Center for Magnetism and Magnetic Nanostructures

High Frequency On–Wafer Microwave Devices
Abstract: We will present results for tunable microwave devices based on a microstrip and co-planar waveguide geometries. These structures, prepared by sputtering on GaAs, Si or SiO2 substrates, are compatible in size and growth process with on-chip high-frequency electronics. We will discuss on-wafer notch filters, band pass filters, nonreciprocal devices such as isolators, and true delay lines. For the notch filters, we observed power attenuation up to 100 dB/cm and an insertion loss on the order of 2–3 dB for both Permalloy- and Fe-based structures. The operational frequency ranges from 5 to 35 GHz for external fields below 5 kOe. The operational frequency, which can be obtained from the ferromagnetic resonance condition, is set by material properties such as saturation magnetization, anisotropy fields, the gyromagnetic ratio, and the magnitude of an applied field. Thus, by using different materials and external fields we can create devices which function over a wide range of frequencies. We fabricated a novel band-pass filter using ferrite nanoparticles as the active element in microstrip geometry. It is very compact and has very wide frequency tunability. Linear dependence is obtained between the resonance frequency and the applied dc magnetic field. The bandwidth and Q-factor of the filter are observed to be almost constant over the field range studied.

We use Ni nanowires to build microwave isolators (non-reciprocal devices). The attenuation of the wave in forward and reverse direction shows a difference in transmission coefficients. The isolation is ~ 6 dB/cm at 23 GHz. The bandwidth of the device is relatively large (5-7 GHz) in comparison to ferrite-based devices.

We demonstrate an on-wafer liquid crystal phase shifter which has a tunable 0 - 300o/cm phase shift at 110 GHz. The results show no dispersion over the entire frequency range indicating a tunable "true time delay" of up to 2.5 ps/cm at all frequencies. The inherent losses in the liquid crystal are small, less than 1 dB/cm over the range of 1 – 110 GHz. The full tunability is achieved using small voltages, close to 10 V.

Event Flyer

January 17, 2012

Bryan Krantz
Professor of Molecular & Cell Biology; Professor of Chemistry
UC Berkeley
Insights on the Molecular Mechanism of Transmembrane Protein Transport using Anthrax Toxin as a Model System
Abstract: The translocation of multi-domain folded proteins across membranes has become a tractable process to investigate mechanistically using bacterial toxin model systems. We have exploited anthrax toxin to investigate the general molecular mechanism of translocation-coupled unfolding and polypeptide translocation. The toxin is comprised of an oligomeric channel, called protective antigen (PA, ~500 kDa complex), and two ~90 kDa substrate proteins lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF), which are delivered through the PA channel under the proton motive force (PMF). A recent crystal structure of a PA oligomer in complex with a fragment of LF and functional studies using planar bilayer electrophysiology show how the LF and EF are unfolded via an interaction with highly nonspecific binding site on the surface of the PA oligomer. The site, called the á clamp functions principally by recognizing the general shape of an á helix. Helix is an important secondary-structure motif for translocation as non-helical polymers translocate poorly relative to analogous polypeptides capable of forming helix. Studies on how the PMF is coupled to anthrax toxin translocation reveal a proton-gated structure in the channel that we have shown binds and releases substrate based on changes charge principally at acidic residue sites in the substrate and channel. Force generation is critically linked to these proton binding sites in the leader sequence of the substrates LF and EF. The overall picture is that polypeptide translocation functions by a series of coordinated binding and release events from the translocating polypeptide chain. These bind and release events can be likened to gating and ungating processes in other transporters. We provide new structural evidence that these polypeptide binding sites, which recognize unique chemistries in the substrate, can gate and ungate in a coordinated manner. Functional studies show certain ungated intermediates allow for translocation to proceed in a remarkably unidirectional manner. These features harken the ratchet-like sites envisioned to play a key role in polymer translocation both across membranes and within soluble compartments in the cell.

January 10, 2012

Orlando Auciello
Argonne Distinguished Fellow
Argonne National Laboratories, Department of Energy

Science and Technology of Multifunctional Oxide and Ultrananocrystalline Diamond (UNCD) Films and Applications to a New Generation of Multifunctional Devices/Systems
Abstract: New paradigms in the research and development of novel multifunctional oxide and nanocarbon thin films are providing the bases for new physics and a new generation of multifunctional devices for micro/nano-electronics and biomedical devices and biosystems. This talk will focus on discussing the science, technology, and engineering of multifunctional oxide and nanocarbon thin films extensively investigated, developed and patented at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) during the last fifteen years, and the efforts focused on integrating them into a new generation of micro/nano-electronic devices and implantable biomedical devices and biosystems, as described below:

1. Science and technology of complex oxide thin films applicable to two key technologies: a) Novel TiO2/Al2O3 superlattices, exhibit giant dielectric constant (up to k=1000), low leakage current (10-7-10-9 A/cm2) and low losses (¡Ü tang d=0.04), based on new physics underlined by the Maxwell-Wagner relaxation mechanism, which enables a new generation of microchip embedded capacitors for microchips implantable in the human body, the next generation of gates for nanoscale CMOS devices, and super-capacitors for energy storage systems; b) NiO nanolaminates exhibiting resistive switching due to strong electronic correlations sustaining a Mott insulator-conductor transition. The quantum mechanical phenomena enabled by the new doped NiO provides the basis for a new high-density non-volatile resistive change memory named correlated electron random access memory (CeRAM) under development in a joint Symetrix Corporation-Argonne R&D program.

2. Science and technology of novel ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films and integration for fabrication of a new generation of industrial components and multifunctional and biomedical devices: UNCD films developed and patented at Argonne National Laboratory are synthesized by a novel microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition technique using an Ar-rich/CH4 chemistry that produces films with 2-5 nm grains, thus the name UNCD to distinguish them from nanocrystalline diamond films with 30-100 nm grains. The UNCD films exhibit a unique combination of outstanding mechanical, trtibological, electrical, thermal, and biological properties, which already resulted in industrial components and devices currently commercialized by Advanced Diamond Technologies (a company co-founded by O. Auciello and J.A. Carlisle and spun-off from ANL in 2003). Devices and systems reviewed include: a) UNCD-coated mechanical pump seals for the petrochemical, pharmaceutical and car industries (shipping to market); b) UNCD-coated bearings for mixers for the pharmaceutical industry (shipping to Merck-Millipore market); c) new UNCD electrodes for water purification, which outperform all other electrodes in the market today (shipping to market); d) UNCD-AFM tips for science and nanofabrication (shipping to market); e) RF-MEMS switches monolithically integrated with CMOS driving devices for next generation of radars and mobile communication devices; f) UNCD-based MEMS biosensors and energy harvesting devices g) NEMS switch-based logic; h) bioinert UNCD coating for encapsulation of a microchip implantable in the retina to restore sight to people blinded by retina photoreceptors degeneration (31 blind people received microchip implants in 5 countries and are reading letters and recognizing objects and walking through doors without aid; i) UNCD bioinert coating for heart valves; j) UNCD coating for devices to drain eye liquid for treatment of glaucoma; k) UNCD coating for magnets located outside the eye to produce magnetic fields to attract superparamagnetic nanoparticles injected in the eye to reattach detached retina; l) UNCD coating for stents; m) UNCD coating for artificial joints (hips and knees); n) UNCD surface used as a unique platform for growing stem cells and induce differentiation into various cells of the human body.

Bio: Orlando Auciello is an Argonne Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, working in the Materials Science Division (1996-present), and the Center for Nanoscale Materials (2006-2011) and an Adjunct Professor at University of Colorado-Colorado Springs and Michigan State University. He graduated with M.S. (1973) and Ph.D (1976) degrees in Physics from the Physics Institute ¡°Dr. Balseiro¡± (Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Argentina). He also studied Electronic Engineering at the University of Cordoba-Argentina (1964-1970). After a postdoc at McMaster University-Canada (1976-1979), he was a Researcher at the University of Toronto-Canada (1979-1984), Associate Professor at North Carolina State University (1985-1988), and Senior Research Scientist at the Microelectronics Center of North Carolina (1988-1996).