California NanoSystems Institute
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June 05, 2012

Thabet Tolaymat
Environmental Engineer
Environmental Protection Agency
Silver Nanoparticles in the Environment
The use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is growing drastically as a result of their unique size-dependent physical and chemical properties and their broad-spectrum toxicity to organisms. There are major concerns about potential environmental impacts associated with the release of AgNPs into the environment. Therefore, we conducted fundamental research to characterize the surface charging and aggregation properties of coated and uncoated AgNPs under various environmental conditions, investigate their mobility in reactive and nor-reactive porous media and assess their toxicity to organisms. Silver nanoparticles with different capping agents were selected to represent the various surface charging scenarios and the common stabilization mechanisms of AgNPs which may be released into the environment. Furthermore, we evaluated the impact of capping agent on the mobility and toxicity of AgNPs.

Bio: Thabet Tolaymat has worked for the U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development in Cincinnati, Ohio since 2003. Currently, he leads EPA’s national research program in the area of solid waste research. His main research areas are solid waste management, bioreactor landfills, waste containment performance, construction and demolition waste landfills, fate and transport of environmental pollutants. Thabet is a member of the ITRC Alternative Landfill Technology team. He earned a doctorate in environmental engineering from University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida in 2003.

May 22, 2012

David Mitzi
IBM T. J. Watson Research Center

Development of High-Performance Solution-Processed Chalcopyrite/Kesterite Films For Photovoltaic Application
Abstract: While chalcopyrite and kesterite materials offer a promising pathway toward commercialized photovoltaic technology, the complicated multi-element nature of these materials generally leads to the requirement of more complex and costly deposition processes. This talk will focus on the development of a relatively simple liquid-based deposition process that has enabled the fabrication of high-performance CuIn1-xGaxSe2-ySy (CIGS) and Cu2ZnSnSe4-ySy (CZTS) absorber layers, with resulting device power conversion efficiencies of 15% and 10%, respectively. The devices are compared using a variety of physical characterization tools, including temperature-dependent J-V, external quantum efficiency and capacitance spectroscopy, leading to a better understanding of factors limiting device performance. For CZTS, the combination of new record efficiency, earth abundant metal starting materials, and solution-based processing opens opportunities for development of a potentially pervasive technology.

Bio: Dr. David Mitzi received a B.S.E. in Electrical Engineering from Princeton University in 1985 and a Ph.D. in Applied Physics from Stanford University in 1990. In 1990, he joined the I.B.M. J. Watson Research Center where he initiated a program examining crystal structure-property relationships and low-cost thin-film deposition techniques for a variety of electronic materials.

Currently, Mitzi manages the Photovoltaic Science and Technology group at IBM, with a focus on developing solution-processed high-performance inorganic semiconductors for thin-film PV devices. Dr. Mitzi holds a number of patents and has authored or coauthored more than 140 papers and book chapters.

May 15, 2012

Banu Onaral, PhD
H.H. Sun Professor and Director School of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health Systems
Drexel University

Functional Optical Brain Monitoring System: fNIR
Abstract: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) based optical imaging systems have been widely used in functional brain studies as a noninvasive tool to study changes in the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb). Based on the NIRS technique, Drexel University’s Optical Brain Imaging team has developed a functional brain monitoring system (fNIR) to assess cognitive activity of healthy subjects and patients. The fNIR is a portable, safe, affordable and negligibly intrusive monitoring system which enables the study of cortical activation-related hemodynamic changes under various field conditions. This presentation will provide an overview of applications of the fNIR including human performance assessment, learning and training, depth of anesthesia monitoring, neuro-rehabilitation, brain computer interface for locked-in patients, mental health applications as well as ‘brain-in-the loop’ applications in motor learning and robotic rehabilitation. The audience will be introduced to the Cognitive Neuroengineering and Quantitative Experimental Research (CONQUER) CollabOrative which hosts the Optical Brain Imaging team and welcomes all regional, national and international partners dedicated to the research, development, integration, translation, productization, field deployment and commercialization of functional imaging techniques to monitor human brain activation in natural environments.

Bio: Dr. Onaral is H. H. Sun Professor of Biomedical Engineering and Electrical Engineering at Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. She holds a Ph.D. [1978] in Biomedical Engineering from the University of Pennsylvania and BSEE [1973] and MSEE [1974] in Electrical Engineering from Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey. Dr. Onaral joined the faculty of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Biomedical Engineering and Science Institute in 1981. She held two sabbatical leaves at Bogazici University in the academic years 1980-81 and 1987-88. Since 1997, she has served as the founding Director of the School of Biomedical Engineering Science and Health Systems.

Her academic focus, both in research and teaching, is centered on information engineering with special emphasis on complex systems and biomedical signal processing in ultrasound and optics. She has led major research and development projects sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Office of Naval Research (ONR), DARPA and Department of Homeland Security (DHS). She has supervised a large number of graduate students to degree completion and has an extensive publication record in biomedical signals and systems. She is the recipient of a number of faculty excellence awards, including the 1990 Lindback Distinguished Teaching Award of Drexel University, the EDUCOM Best educational Software award, and the NSF Faculty Achievement Award.

Dr. Onaral’s translational research efforts for rapid commercialization of biomedical technologies developed at Drexel and its partner institutions have resulted in the creation of the Translational Research in Biomedical Technologies program. This initiative brings together academic technology developers with entrepreneurs, regional economic development agencies, as well as local legal, business, and investment communities. Under her leadership, the Coulter Translational Research Partnership Award recognized the program following a highly competitive selection process among 63 institutions in North America. At the end of an initial five-year term, universities successful in institutionalizing translational research will receive an endowment to ensure the perpetuity of the program.

Dr. Onaral’s professional services include chair and membership on advisory boards and strategic planning bodies of several universities and funding agencies, including service on the National Science Foundation's Engineering Advisory Board and on its proposal review panels and study sections. She has served on the strategic planning team charged with the creation of Sabanci University in Istanbul, Turkey. She currently serves on the board of trustees of Sabanci University, which was established in 1998.

Her professional responsibilities have included service on the Editorial Board of journals and the CRC Biomedical Engineering Handbook as Section Editor for Biomedical Signal Analysis. She served as President of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS), the largest member-based biomedical engineering society in the world. She organized and chaired the 1990 Annual International Conference of the EMBS and Co-Chaired the 2004 Annual Conference of the Biomedical Engineering Society (BMES). She is a Fellow of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), and a Founding Fellow of the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering (AIMBE). She served on the inaugural Board of the AIMBE as publications chair and as Chair of the Academic Council. She currently serves as the President of the Turkish American Scientists and Scholars Association (TASSA).

May 01, 2012

Vinod M. Menon
Associate Professor of Physics
Queens College & Graduate Center of the City University of New York (CUNY)
Control Of Light-Matter Interaction Using Dispersion Engineered Photonic Structures
Abstract: The interaction of light with matter can be engineered by controlling the photonic density of states (PDOS). I will discuss our recent work on optical topological transition in strongly anisotropic metamaterials that can be used to engineer the PDOS [1]. The transition in the topology of the iso-frequency surface from a closed ellipsoid to an open hyperboloid manifests itself in increased rates of spontaneous emission of emitters positioned near the metamaterial. Following this, I will talk about our work on light-matter quasiparticles realized in an excitonic lattice [2]. The coherent interaction between the excitons in the lattice with the Bloch waves of an underlying photonic crystal results in the formation of strongly coupled light-matter quasiparticles called Bloch polaritons. Tuning of these polariton states using electric field and its application for switching and slow light enhanced nonlinear optics will also be discussed. Time permitting; I will also discuss our work on metal nanocomposite based photonic crystals for enhancing the nonlinear optical response.

Optical topological transition (OTT) PowerPoint slides

[1] “Topological transitions in metamaterials,” H. Krishnamoorthy, Z. Jacob, E. Narimanov, I. Kretzschmar, and V. M. Menon, Science 336, 205 (2012).
[2] “Exciton Lattice polaritons in multiple quantum well based photonic crystals,” D. Goldberg, L. Deych, A. Lisyansky, Z. Shi, V. Tokranov, M. Yakimov, S. Oktyabrsky, and V. M. Menon, Nature Photonics 3, 662 (2009).

Bio: Dr. Vinod Menon is an Associate Professor of Physics at Queens College and Graduate Center of the City University of New York (CUNY). He joined CUNY as part of the Photonic Initiative in 2004. Prior to joining CUNY he was a research staff member at Princeton University (2003-04). He joined Princeton as the Lucent Bell Labs Post Doctoral Fellow in Photonics in 2001. He received his MSc in Physics from the University of Hyderabad, India in 1995 and his Ph.D. in Physics from the University of Massachusetts in 2001. His current research interests include the development of classical and non-classical light sources using quantum dots, metamaterials for controlling light-matter interaction, and engineered nonlinear optical materials using hybrid nanocomposites.

April 24, 2012

Jo Anne Shatkin
CEO, CLF Ventures Inc.; an affiliate of the Conservation Law Foundation

Life Cycle Assessment of Engineered Nanomaterials
Abstract: Responsible and sustainable technology development requires proactive consideration of potential impacts across the life cycle of materials. The need for data a priori to application development creates challenges for a structure designed to test individual substances in pure form. For novel nanoscale materials, limitations in the availability and reliability of data create challenges for measuring and assessing their potential risks to health and the environment in real world applications, particularly because of the dynamic nature of these materials in the environment. This talk describes an iterative, tiered approach to risk assessment of nanomaterials, incorporating life cycle systems thinking into the risk analysis paradigm to inform data gaps, with increasing data requirements as products approach commercialization. Potential risks are framed across the product life cycle, utilizing a structured approach to identify critical uncertainties and priority data needs at each stage that informs a prioritized research agenda, and adapts research based on current findings. Detailed exposure assessments are designed and evaluated using novel methods, informing experimental design of toxicology studies. The life cycle assessment of risk identifies scenarios of concern; these form the conceptual models that are explored in depth in subsequent iterations.

Bio: Jo Anne Shatkin, Ph.D., is Managing Director of CLF Ventures, a non-profit affiliate of the Conservation Law Foundation, New England’s most influential environmental advocacy organization.

CLF Ventures works at the intersection of business, stakeholder, and environmental issues to optimize environmental and economic performance, from project launch and business operation to responsible closure of surplus assets. Dr. Shatkin is a recognized expert in strategic environmental initiatives, human health risk assessment, technical communications, and environmental aspects of nanotechnology. She leads and provides expertise on projects and manages the day to day operations of CLF Ventures.

Dr. Shatkin has 18 years of experience in research and application of quantitative human health risk assessment for site redevelopment and remediation; drinking water and air quality, and environmental evaluations of emerging contaminants. Her specialty is the application and communication of innovative science-informed analysis to address complex emerging issues affecting businesses and communities. She is a research fellow of the George Perkins Marsh Institute at Clark University.

Areas of expertise include health and environmental aspects of emerging contaminants, solid waste sites, brownfields, water quality, metals, petroleum and coal tar contaminated sites, contaminant mixtures, bioavailability of soil contaminants, and health-based standards for reuse of contaminated sites.

April 19, 2012

Scott McNeil
Director, Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory for the National Cancer Institute at Frederick
U.S. National Institutes of Health

Nanoparticle Characterization: Lessons Learned from NCI’s Nanotechnology Characterization Lab (NCL)
Abstract:The Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory (NCL) is a collaborating partnership among the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Founded in 2004 as part of the NCI’s Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer, the NCL serves to accelerate the transition of nanoscale particles and devices into clinical applications by providing critical infrastructure and characterization services to investigators from academia, industry and government. The NCL characterizes physicochemical properties, in vitro biological properties, and preclinical efficacy and toxicity of nanoparticles intended as cancer therapeutics and diagnostics. To date, the NCL has characterized more than 250 different nanoparticles from nearly 100 different investigators. The NCL has also partnered with the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) to characterize a variety of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). With the increasing prevalence of ENMs in commercial products, government programs have begun proactive studies into the overall safety of these materials.

The unique infrastructure of the NCL has provided the opportunity to examine hundreds of nanoparticles in a multitude of different platforms, which in turn has allowed us to elucidate trends relating physicochemical properties such as size and surface chemistry to nanoparticle behavior in biological systems, biodistribution, safety, and efficacy. This presentation will include some of the NCL’s recent findings regarding nanoparticle physicochemical characteristics, biocompatibility, and toxicity. Funded by NCI contract No: HHSN261200800001E. Additional funding for characterization of ENMs provided by NIEHS.

Bio: Dr. Scott McNeil serves as the Director of the Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory (NCL) for SAIC-Frederick and the National Cancer Institute at Frederick (NCI-Frederick), where he coordinates preclinical characterization of nanotech cancer therapeutics and diagnostics. At the NCL, Dr. McNeil leads a team of scientists responsible for testing candidate nanotech drugs and diagnostics, evaluating safety and efficacy, and assisting with product development -- from discovery-level, through scale-up and into clinical trials. NCL has assisted in characterization and evaluation of more than 250 nanotechnology products, several of which are now in human clinical trials. Dr. McNeil is a member of several working groups on nanomedicine, environmental health and safety, and other nanotechnology issues. He is an invited speaker to numerous nanotechnology-related conferences and has several patents pending related to nanotechnology and biotechnology. He also directs SAIC-Frederick’s Imaging and Nanotechnology Group (ING), and is a Vice President of SAIC-Frederick.

Prior to establishing the NCL, he served as a Senior Scientist in the Nanotech Initiatives Division at SAIC where he transitioned basic nanotechnology research to government and commercial markets. He advises Industry and State and US Governments on the development of nanotechnology and is a member of several governmental and industrial working groups related to nanotechnology policy, standardization and commercialization. Dr. McNeil's professional career includes tenure as an Army Officer, with tours as Chief of Biochemistry at Tripler Army Medical Center, and as a Combat Arms officer during the Gulf War. He received his bachelor's degree in chemistry from Portland State University and his doctorate in cell biology from Oregon Health Sciences University.

April 10, 2012

Gary Brooker, PhD
Director, Microscopy Center, Whiting School of Engineering Montgomery County Campus, Johns Hopkins University
FINCH- A new kind of incoherent 3D holography with super-resolution properties and its application to fluorescence microscopy
Abstract: Fresnel Incoherent Correlation Holography (FINCH) enables holograms to be recorded from incoherent light or theoretically from any incoherent imaging paradigm in the electromagnetic spectrum. A digital camera and a spatial light modulator are the only imaging components needed in this single beam motionless system. With FINCH, one complex hologram contains all of the three dimensional information in a field of view, obviating the need for scanning or serial sectioning to generate 3D data in comparison to conventional coherent or incoherent two dimensional imaging systems. The method and its application to general three dimensional imaging and specifically to advances in high resolution fluorescence microscopy will be reviewed. Recent theoretical analysis and experimental data reveal that FINCH is a hybrid between a coherent and incoherent imaging system and that it retains the resolution advantages of each method, making FINCH inherently a super-resolving system.
April 03, 2012

Delia Milliron
The Molecular Foundry, Inorganic Nanostructures
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
UC Berkeley

Tailoring properties of nanocrystal-based electronic materials
Abstract: Nanostructuring offers a new twist on conventional approaches—such as doping, compositional complexity, and phase control—to tuning the properties of electronic materials. Our work exploits the exceptional size and compositional control of colloidal synthesis to manipulate functionality. I will first demonstrate the extraordinary range of dynamic plasmon modulation achievable in doped metal oxide nanocrystals. This phenomenon holds promise for a new breed of smart, energy-saving window coatings. Second, I will describe our chemical approach to fabricating inorganic particle-in-matrix nanocomposites and illustrate how nanostructuring can be used to enhance and tune mixed ionic and electronic transport properties in these materials. I will conclude my talk at the intersection between these topics, namely the potential for nanocomposite materials to further enhance functionality of electrochromic window coatings.