California NanoSystems Institute
CNSI
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November 28, 2006

Edward McCabe
UCLA


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Genomic Medicine: Point-Of-Care Diagnostics and Bio-Nano Devices
Genomic medicine will be predictive, preventive and personalized, and is emerging at a time when individuals are expressing increased desire for autonomy in their healthcare decision-making. A confluence of a variety of influences, including completion of the human genome project, plans for prolonged human space travel and movement toward a medical culture of prevention, are among the factors driving the development of point-of-care diagnostics and bio-nano devices. Examples from our group's research will include the rapid diagnosis of bacterial infections, single cell cytosensors for radiation detection, and genomic arrays in newborn screening. The importance of cross-disciplinary teams for overcoming the challenges in bio-nano device development will be considered.

November 21, 2006

Dr. Keiji Sasaki

Research Institute for Electronic Science (RIES)

Hokkaido University (Japan)


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Nanophotonics and Nanobiology
RIES and attached Nanotechnology Research Center and Nikon Bio-Imaging Center aim to establish an interdisciplinary research area "Nanoscience" by combining and fusing phonics, materials, and life sciences.

In this seminar, we introduce research activities of RIES in the fields of nanophotonics and nanobiology, such as photon force measurement and spectroscopy, fabrication and characterization of 3D photonic crystal structures and plasmonic materials, and development of DNA-encodable functional indicators to visualize biological phenomena in living cells.

November 14, 2006

Stefan W. Hell
Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry,
Germany

Poster for talk



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Far-field Fluorescence Microscopy at the Nanoscale

Abstract Description:
Since the discovery of the diffraction resolution barrier by Ernst Abbe in 1873, the spatial resolution of a focusing (far-field) light microscope has been basically limited to ~200 nm. In this lecture, we discuss physical concepts that have fundamentally broken the diffraction barrier and lead to far-field microscopy resolution at the molecular scale (< 20 nm). Special emphasis is given to STED microscopy1 and the RESOLFT concept utilizing photoswitchable proteins and organic compounds as molecular markers. Finally, we show applications in which nanoscale fluorescence 'nanoscopy' was key to solving problems in cell biology and beyond2,3.

1. G. Donnert, et al, PNAS 103, 11440 (2006).
2. K. Willig, J. Keller, M. Bossi & S. W. Hell, New J. Phys. 8, 106 (2006).
3. K. I. Willig, S. O. Rizzoli, V. Westphal, R. Jahn & S. W. Hell, Nature 440, 935 (2006).


November 07, 2006

Jeff Welser
Director, Next Generation Technology Components
IBM Almaden Research Center
System and Technology Challenges for Nanoscale CMOS
Abstract Description:
As CMOS transistors are scaled to nanometer dimensions, the ability to continue increasing processor frequency and single thread performance is being severely limited by exponential increases in leakage and active power. To continue to improve system performance, future designs will rely on increasing numbers of smaller, more power efficient cores and special purpose accelerators integrated on a chip. At the same time, technology must continue to find ways to increase transistor density, while keeping power density in check. In this talk, I'll describe how these trends are leading to more modular, SoC-like designs for future processor chips, which can still achieve very high throughput performance while using simplified components and a cost efficient design methodology.

Reference: "Future Processors: Modular and Flexible," (Invited) C. Johnson and J. Welser, presented at International Conference on Hardware/Software Codesign and System Synthesis, New York, Sep 2005.

October 31, 2006

Stephen Loeb
University of Windsor (Canada)

Rotaxanes as Ligands for Molecular Machines and Metal Organic Frameworks

Abstract: Mechanically interlocked molecules are well suited for the construction of molecular machines and solution studies on the dynamic nature and switching properties of these systems has generated a great deal of fundamental knowledge about the manipulation of nanoscale components. Despite these advances, higher degrees of ordering are required to take advantage of the functional components and make them individually addressable and controllable. We have investigated a strategy which involves ordering mechanically linked units in the solid state by incorporating them into metal-based polyrotaxanes which we term metal-organic rotaxane frameworks (MORFs). Since the rotaxane linker can be modified by retaining the bridging axle unit and exchanging the wheel component, this also offers a flexible method for supramolecular modification that can be used to tune the internal properties of these materials. This lecture will describe our recent work on the use of the (1,2-bis(pyridinium)ethane)C(24C8) templating motif for the construction of rotaxane ligands, molecular machines and MORF materials.

Suggested Reading
1. S. J. Loeb, Chem. Commun. 2005, 1511-1518. 2. S. J. Loeb, J. Tiburcio J. A. Wisner, Org. Biomol. Chem., 2006, 4, 667-680.


October 24, 2006

Marcus Weck
Georgia Institute of Technology


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Functional Polymeric Architectures via Self-Assembly
The design and synthesis of multifunctionalized, architecturally controlled materials is a prerequisite for a variety of future applications. Based on Nature's use of self-assembly in the creation of biomaterials, the presentation will describe concepts that are being developed that utilize noncovalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, ionic interactions, electrostatic interactions, metal coordination, and p-p stacking in the controlled functionalization and modification of side- and main-chain copolymers as well as oligopeptides to obtain multi-functional polymeric materials, induce polymer morphology changes, design peptide-based nanostructures and to influence bulk-polymer properties.

October 17, 2006

M.G. Finn
Scripps Research Institute: Lab Website


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Viruses and Click Chemistry: Bricks and Mortar on the Nanochemical Scale
Abstract Description:
Virus particles are the most readily available nanoscale objects that have regular structures known to atomic resolution. The full exploitation of their potential in chemistry, biology, materials science, and nanotechnology require as complete an understanding as possible of their chemistry. The production, properties, and chemical reactivity of three icosahedral virus particles (cowpea mosaic virus, hepatitis B virus coat protein, and bacteriophage Qb) will be described, with an emphasis on the scope and limitations of position-selective bond formation to the exterior surfaces of the capsids. Of particular importance is the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction as a highly active method for bioconjugation. Lastly, applications of chemically-derivatized virus particles in the areas of immunogenicity, T-cell activation, and self assembly will be presented.

October 10, 2006

Pierre Petroff, Ph.D.
Professor of Electrical & Computer Engineering
University of California, Santa Barbara

Current Research


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Ultra Bright and Efficient Photon Sources From Cavity Coupled Quantum Dots
Controlling light-matter interactions has recently been at the forefront of semiconductor research. Indeed, the manipulation of classical and non-classical light and the development of single photon sources, photonic crystal (PC) components and hybrid quantum dot (QD) /PC structures will have important technological applications. We discuss some of our results in this field for 2 types of quantum dot devices.

In the first example, we discuss our effort in controlling the coupling conditions between self-assembled MBE grown quantum dots and a PC cavity. We demonstrate an ultra low threshold QD/PC laser and observe that the demanding coupling conditions to obtain substantial increases in the spontaneous emission rate (Purcell effect) are relaxed. In the second example we demonstrate and discuss some of the physics involved in an ultra efficient single photon emitter based on a quantum dot /microcavity hybrid device.
October 03, 2006

Bob Grubbs
2005 Nobel Laureate in Chemistry
Professor of Chemistry
California Institute of Technology Faculty Page
Current Research



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The synthesis of large and small molecules using olefin metathesis catalysts

Abstract: Ruthenium based olefin metathesis catalysts have provided new routes to olefins that appear in a variety of structures. Their functional group tolerance and ease of use allow their application in the synthesis of multifunctional bioactive molecules. The same systems are also useful for the synthesis of an array of new materials from multifunctional polymers to supramolecular systems.1 Underlying these developments has been the discovery of active catalysts with controlled selectivity through the synthesis of new ligands that control the geometry of the intermediate carbene and metallacycle complexes.2

References:
[1] Grubbs, R. H. Tetrahedron 2004, 60, 7117-7140
[2] Funk, T. W.; Berlin, J. M.; Grubbs, R. H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 1840-1846.