California NanoSystems Institute
CNSI
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Suman Datta Theresa Reineke
Benjamin Gilbert Debra R. Rolison
James Hutchby Nora Savage
Kazunori Kataoka Molly Shoichet
Sarah C. Larsen John Turner
Arun Majumdar Benjamin Wu
Andre Nel Eli Yablonovitch
Daniel Nocera Omar Yaghi
Peter Peumans Wei-xian Zhang




Suman Datta
Intel Corporation Lab Website

Recent Advances in Silicon and Non-Silicon Nanoelectronic Devices for High-Performance, Energy Efficient Electronic Applications
Abstract Description:

Sustaining Moore's Law of doubling CMOS transistor density every twenty four months will require not only shrinking the transistor dimensions, but also introduction of new materials and novel device architectures to reduce energy consumption. The physical gate length of Si MOS transistors used in today's 65nm logic technology node is about 35nm, and it is projected that the size of transistors will reach about 10-15nm in 2011. Through silicon innovations such as strained-Si channels, high-K dielectric/metal-gate stacks, and the non-planar multiple gate "Tri-gate" transistor architecture, CMOS transistor scaling and Moore's Law will continue at least through the middle of next decade. Beyond that, in the limits of nanometer scale, the dominant practical constraints arise from power dissipation in ever smaller volumes, making energy efficient device research the central theme of nanoelectronics research in every research lab. All future devices, charge and spin based, need to carefully address the fundamental energy efficiency question not only from the simplistic view point of switching states but also from a broader perspective of speed, power, noise margin, reliability, reproducibility, signal restoration, transmission, and ability to do predictive design of a complex electronic system. As an example, I will present some of our recent research efforts in investigating ultra-high mobility quantum well transistors based on compound semiconductors as a promising energy efficient future device option. Some novel benchmarking results comparing these III-V transistors to the state-of-the-art advanced Si-based transistors will be presented.

Biography:

Suman Datta is a Principal Engineer in the Advanced Transistor and Nanotechnology Group, Technology and Manufacturing Group, at Intel Corporation. Suman leads research and development programs in advanced silicon and compound semiconductor based devices as well as emerging nanoelectronic devices, for high-speed, low-power logic and embedded memory applications. He has invented new device architectures (such as the Tri-gate transistors) and novel process technologies (high-k/metal gate stacks) which continue to be key enablers for continuation of Moore's Law and Intel's leadership in logic transistor technology for high performance microprocessor applications. He has established many internal device research programs on disruptive transistor nanotechnologies (such as the compound semiconductor based quantum-well transistors, carbon nanotube, semiconductor nanowire transistors) for next generation computing and storage application. Suman is widely recognized for his technical contributions and leadership within Intel and in the semiconductor industry which include the Intel Achievement Award (Intel's highest honor) for "developing the world's first high-K/metal gate CMOS transistors with record-setting performance", the Divisional Recognition Award from the Intel Logic Technology Development Group for "invention and successful demonstration of high performance Tri-gate CMOS transistors", 29 US and foreign patents and over 40 technical publications in journals and conferences. He is a Senior Member of the IEEE Electron Devices Society.



Benjamin Gilbert
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Lab Website

Nanogeoscience: Material Science Lessons from Natural Nanoparticles
Abstract Description:

Nanoscale minerals -- nanoparticles -- are formed in natural enviroments by inorganic geochemical processes and by microbial activity. Nanogeoscience research seeks both to determine the effects of size on properties such as phase stability and redox behavior, and to understand the environmental consequences. For example, finite particle size can significantly modify the intrinsic reactivity of these minerals, and hence change their (photo)chemical properties. Because of their large surface areas, nanoparticles exhibit substantial capacities for sequestering aqueous ions, affecting the bioavailability and transport of species with an affinity for these mineral surfaces. Nanoparticle formation, transformation or dissolution is usually associated with important environmental processes including microbial metabolism and the cycling of elements such as iron, manganese, sulfur and carbon. By uncovering the roles played by nanoparticles in these chemical transformations we aim to better understand these natural processes and also to anticipate the fate and impact of anthropogenic nanoparticles in the environment. These are broad goals, and the complexity of natural systems means that most insights into the properties and behavior of environmental nanoparticles have been derived from synthetic analogs or from bacterial cultures. Nevertheless, the study of nanoscale earth materials has lead to numerous profound advances in our understanding of small particles. Concepts such as surface-energy driven phase stability inversions; surface-binding driven structural transformations; and aggregation-driven nanoparticle growth have been important contributions to mainstream nanoscience and technology. More recent research has revealed additional novel aspects of nanoparticle colloidal and chemical properties. For example, nanoparticles of common oxides and oxyhydroxides can exhibit size dependent shifts in electronic properties that are difficult to understand theoretically but which may offer genuinely new materials for technological applications such as solar energy utilization. Thus, the study of environmental nanoparticles shows that there is yet no end to the unexpected and potentially beneficial properties of material that are nanometers in size.

Biography:

Benjamin Gilbert obtained a B.A. in Natural Sciences from Cambridge University in 1994 and a PhD from the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne in 2000. Following post-doctoral research at the University of Wisconsin - Madison and at the University of California at Berkeley, he joined Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. in 2004. A common theme of his doctoral, postdoctoral and independent research has been the interdisciplinary study of the natural world. His research at Berkeley has helped both define and advance the field of nanogeoscience, and he is working to establish a collaborative research laboratory dedicated to this field. Research accomplishments include: the discovery of stable cluster formation by iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles; the development of a theoretical basis for experimental observations of a thermodynamically stable nanophase material; observation of structural transformations in ZnS nanoparticles associated with water binding; the identification of nanoscale silicate inclusions in zircons; and combined experimental and theoretical descriptions of the crystal chemistry of manganese oxides. These studies are some of over 40 peer-reviewed publications that include collaborations with geochemists, mineralogists, material scientists and geomicrobiologists.



James Hutchby
Semiconductor Research Corporation Lab Website

Computing Beyond CMOS Domination -- A Physics Perspective
Abstract Description:

Classical computing technology has been dominated by relentlessly scaled CMOS gates and single core microprocessor architecture for more than the past 20 years. Highly successful dimensional scaling together with greatly improved manufacturing technology has sustained an annual reduction in the cost of a single transistor by 30%. However, continued scaling of CMOS to and beyond the 90 nm technology node has greatly increased static power dissipation, caused by increased leakage currents, and by dynamic power dissipation, caused by increased clock rates. With CMOS scaling becoming increasingly difficult and power dissipation continuing to rise, the semiconductor and related research communities have pursued many new approaches to either extend or to replace CMOS as the engine of computation. Low dimensional approaches such as nanotubes, nanowires, molecules, SETs, etc, have been proposed for charge based logic devices. A variety of spin-based (electron or nuclei) devices are candidates for a new spin-based logic. Also, some new optical approaches may be candidates for photon-based logic. While many of these approaches are appealing, they all appear to be limited by fundamental physics to be comparable to or not as attractive as charge-based devices. This assessment is based on their potential device or functional density and their power dissipation. This talk will discuss the similarity between these different approaches to binary logic based upon a logical state distinguishability model that requires an energy barrier to separate the two states and minimize error in a binary logic system. The talk will conclude with brief discussion of how new nanoelectronic devices might be used to extend CMOS to new domains of application.

Biography:

Dr. Hutchby is currently Director of Device Sciences with the Semiconductor Research Corporation. In this position he funds and supports university programs addressing Advanced Devices and Technologies and Front End Processing issues. These activities comprehend research in both non-classical and bulk, planar CMOS structures and technologies, modeling and simulation, compact modeling, analog and mixed signal, and memory technology programs. Dr. Hutchby also chairs the Emerging Research Device (ERD) Working Group for the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). This working group identifies and assesses emerging research devices and related new materials proposed for realizing a new paradigm for information processing to extend and, eventually, go beyond CMOS charge-based technology. Prior to joining SRC, Dr. Hutchby was the director of the Center for Semiconductor Research (CSR) with Research Triangle Institute.

Dr. Hutchby has published over 140 contributed and invited papers in scientific journals and conferences. His technical (modeling & simulation and experimental research) work encompassed ion implantation in III-V and II-VI semiconductors, high efficiency multi-junction cascade solar cells, high speed III-V heterojunction bipolar transistors and opto-electronic devices including opto-electronic integrated circuits. He has served as the General Chair and Technical Program Chair of numerous conferences, including the IEEE IEDM, GaAs IC Symposium, and the Workshop on Compound Semiconductor Materials and Devices. He has also served on the program committees in various capacities on the IEEE Cornell Advanced Microelectronics Conference, International GaAs Manufacturing Technology Conference, and the IEEE Photovoltaics Conference. Dr. Hutchby received the IEEE Third Millennium Medal and is a Fellow of the IEEE.



Kazunori Kataoka
University of Tokyo (Japan) Lab Website

Smart Supra-Molecular Assemblies of Block Copolymers as Nanocarriers for Gene and Drug Delivery - Challenge to Intracellular Nanomedicine
Abstract Description:

Polymeric micelles, the self-assemblies of block copolymers, are a promising nanocarrier system for drug and gene delivery. They have several advantages, such as controlled drug release, tissue-penetrating ability and reduced toxicity. Also, nano-engineering of the block copolymers might allow the preparation of polymeric micelles with integrated smart functions, such as targetability as well as stimuli-sensitivity. This presentation overviews recent achievements and future perspectives of polymeric micelles as smart nanocarriers for drug and nucleic acid delivery pH-sensitive polymeric micelles, in which doxorubicin (Dox) is attached to the side chain of the core-forming segment of the block copolymers via an acid-labile hydrazone bond, were developed in our group to show a drug release selectively under the lysosomal/endosomal pH conditions (5.0~5.5). A biodistribution study revealed the micelle to show the longevity in blood circulation due to a minimal leakage of free drug, resulting in the highly selective accumulation in solid tumors. Eventually, the micellar-Dox achieved a significantly higher antitumor activity in C-26-bearing mice over a broader range of injection doses than free Dox without any serious side effects.

Besides the hydrophobic interaction, an electrostatic interaction was found to be available for the formation of the so-called polyion complex (PIC) micelles. This system is particularly useful for the delivery of charged compounds, including genes and siRNA. We developed a novel PEG-polycation block copolymer carrying the ethylenediamine moiety at the side chain (PEG-PAsp(DET)). Due to the regulated location of primary and secondary amino groups in a side chain, this block copolymer possessed both the sufficient DNA complexation ability and buffering capacity for the efficient endosomal escape of the polyplexes based on the proton sponge effect. These properties of PEG-PAsp(DET) enabled the transfection to various primary cells. Notably, the PEG-PAsp(DET) polyplex micelles incorporating pDNA encoded with osteogenic factors were found to successfully transfect recipient cells in mouse calvaria bone defects to induce bone regeneration, demonstrating their utility in the field of tissue regeneration. The site-specific gene transfection is also an important issue in gene therapy. In this regard, we recently developed a novel polyplex system useful for the "photochemical transfection", in which the endosomal escape of the polyplexes is induced by co-incubated photosensitizer (PS) to photodamage the endosomal membrane, allowing the gene transfection in a light-inducible manner2. The subconjunctival injection of the polyplex in rat eyes followed by the laser irradiation attained an appreciable gene expression only at the laser-irradiated site, which is the first success of the light-mediated gene delivery in vivo.

Biography:

Kazunori Kataoka, Ph.D., is a Professor of Biomaterials at Graduate School of Engineering, the University of Tokyo, Japan. He has been appointed joint position since 2004 from Graduate School of Medicine, the University of Tokyo as a Professor of Clinical Biotechnology at Center of Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine.

Dr. Kataoka received a B.S. from the University of Tokyo in 1974 and a Ph.D. from the same University in 1979. He served as a Research Associate and an Associate Professor at the Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Tokyo Women's Medical College, from 1979 to 1989. In 1989 he was appointed an Associate Professor position at Science University of Tokyo. He became full Professor there in 1994. In April, 1998, he moved to the University of Tokyo as a Professor of Biomaterials.

Dr. Kataoka is a member of the Controlled Release Society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Society for Biomaterials, the Japanese Chemical Society, the American Chemical Society, the Society of Polymer Science, Japan, the Japanese Society for Biomaterials, DDS Society, Japan and the Japanese Society of Artificial Organs. He is Editor of the Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition, Associate Editor of Journal of Controlled Release (Controlled Release Society) and Biomacromolecuels (American Chemical Society), and on the Editorial Board of Advanced Drug Delivery Review, Journal of Drug Targeting, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine (European Society of Biomaterials) and Materials and Engineering :C. He held visiting professorship at the University of Paris XIII in 1992, 1996, and also in 2000. He received the Society Award from the Japanese Society for Biomaterials in 1993. In 1994, he received Journal of Controlled Release, Jeorge Heller Outstanding Paper Award from Controlled Release Society. Also from Controlled Release Society, he received 1996 Outstanding Pharmaceutical Paper Award. He has been a Fellow of the American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering since 1999 and a Fellow of Biomaterials Science and Engineering since 2004. He received Society Award from Society of Polymer Science, Japan in year 2000. In April, 2005, he received Clemson Award in Basic Research from Society for Biomaterials, USA, and in September 2006, he received Barré Award from University of Montreal.

Dr. Kataoka is the author of more than 300 scientific papers. His current major research interest includes the development of new polymeric carrier systems, especially block copolymer micelles, for drug and gene targeting.



Sarah C. Larsen
University of Iowa
Lab Website

Nanocatalysts for Environmental Technology
Abstract Description:

Nanocrystalline zeolites have crystal sizes of less than 100 nm and very large external and internal surface areas. The advantages of nanocrystalline zeolites for applications in catalysis are the very large surface areas, the reduced diffusion path lengths and the reactive external surface sites. Nanocrystalline zeolites are also used as building blocks for forming larger zeolite structures such as hollow zeolite tubes or spheres. Surface modification of the nanocrystalline zeolites and zeolite structures is being explored as a way of tailoring the materials for specific applications. Nanocrystalline zeolites and zeolite structures are promising materials for applications in environmental technologies and two examples will be presented in this talk. In the first example, the unique reactivity of nanocrystalline NaY (crystal size ~30 nm) for the selective catalytic reduction of NO2 with reductants such as propylene or urea will be discussed. Nanocrystalline NaY zeolite exhibits enhanced deNOx at low temperature (T = 473 K) compared to commercial NaY zeolite, as shown by an FTIR study on the selective catalytic reduction of NO2 with urea or propylene as reductants. Silanol groups and extraframework aluminum species on the external surface of nanocrystalline NaY were found to be responsible for the higher SCR reaction rate and decreased formation of undesired products relative to commercial NaY zeolite. Nanocrystalline zeolites can be visualized as new catalytic materials that have NOx storage capacity in the internal pores and high reactivity on the external surface. In the second example, a novel visible light photocatalyst consisting of iron-encapsulated zeolite tubes will be used to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in aqueous solution. The iron-loaded ZSM-5 structures were extensively characterized and exhibited high activity for the visible light photoreduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in aqueous solution. The encapsulated iron species were resistant to leaching from the zeolite.

Biography:

Sarah C. Larsen received her BA from Bowdoin College (BA 1986) and her PhD in Chemistry from Harvard University (PhD 1992). She was awarded a Department of Energy Distinguished Postdoctoral Fellowship (1993-1995) to conduct postdoctoral research in the Department of Chemical Engineering, UC Berkeley and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in California. Professor Larsen is currently an Associate Professor of Chemistry in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences (CLAS) at the University of Iowa. She is also the Associate Director of the Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Institute at the University of Iowa (NNI@UI) which is focused on the environmental and health aspects of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Professor Larsen has research interests in the applications of nanocrystalline zeolites to environmental remediation, decontamination and drug delivery. She has expertise in synthesis, characterization and functionalization of nanocrystalline zeolites and hollow zeolite structures and in magnetic resonance. Her research is currently funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), Army Research Office, Department of Energy and the Petroleum Research Fund.



Arun Majumdar
University of California, Berkeley
Lab Website

Direct Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion Using Nanostructured Materials and Devices
Abstract Description:

Given that about 90 percent of the world's power is generated by thermal means, any cost-effective method to increase efficiency and/or extract work from heat lost to the environment could have significant impact on energy conservation and, thereby, reductions of CO2 emissions. Direct thermal to electrical energy conversion using solid-state thermoelectric devices is attractive because such devices contain no moving parts and are environmentally benign. Thermoelectric materials are ranked by a figure of merit, ZT, which is defined as ZT = S2σT/k, where S is the thermopower or Seebeck coefficient, σ is the electrical conductivity, k is the thermal conductivity, and T is the absolute temperature. For the performance of thermoelectric devices to be about 30 percent of the Carnot limit and, thereby, comparable to their macroscopic gas or vapor-based counterparts, one must develop materials with ZT > 3. Five decades of research on bulk semiconductors has increased room-temperature ZT only marginally, from about 0.6 to 1. While each property in ZT can be individually increased by several orders of magnitude, the challenge in increasing ZT lies in the fact that S, σ, and k are interdependent - changing one alters the others, making optimization extremely difficult. Recent research on nanostructured materials has led to sharp increases in ZT, although the fundamental reasons of why and how nanostructuring helps are not completely understood. In this talk, I will report some of our group's work on electron and phonon transport in nanostructured materials that have uncovered some of the underlying reasons. Based on this we have created a set of criteria for designing nanostructured thermoelectric materials, which have led to three new classes of materials: (i) molecular heterostructures; (ii) complex oxides; (iii) bulk nanostructured semiconductors. The talk will provide a background of the field and explore new directions of research.

Biography:

Professor Arun Majumdar received a B.Tech in Mechanical Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (IIT-B) in 1985, and a PhD in Mechanical Engineering from the University of California, Berkeley in 1989, for research conducted in the laboratory of Professor Chang-Lin Tien. After being on the faculty of Arizona State University (1989-92) and University of California, Santa Barbara (1992-96), he began his faculty appointment in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. He currently holds the Almy and Agnes Maynard Chair Professorship in the College of Engineering. In addition to his faculty appointment, Professor Majumdar serves as the Chair of the Berkeley Nanosciences and Nanoengineering Institute (BNNI). He is also a member of the Nanotechnology Technical Advisory Group to the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST). He served as the founding chair of the ASME Nanotechnology Institute, and is currently a member of the Council of Materials Science and Engineering at the Department of Energy and the Advisory Committee of the National Science Foundation's Engineering Directorate. Professor Majumdar is a fellow of ASME and AAAS, and is a member of the US National Academy of Engineering.

Professor Majumdar's research interests are in the broad area of mechanics and transport in nanostructured materials. Of particular current interest are phonon dynamics and transport in low-dimensional materials, materials and devices for energy conversion and storage, transport and reactions in confined liquids (nanofluidics), chemomechanics of small and macromolecules with applications in chem/biosensing, and nanoscale imaging.



Andre Nel
UCLA CNSI
Lab Website

The UC Lead Campus for Nanotoxicology at UCLA and use of an Oxidative Stress Paradigm for Nanomaterial Assessment
Abstract Description:

Nanomaterial properties differ from those bulk materials of the same composition, allowing them to execute novel activities. A possible downside of these capabilities is harmful interactions with biological systems, with the potential to generate toxicity. An approach to assess nanomaterial safety is urgently required. The UC Lead Campus for Nanotoxicology Research and Training is using a multidisciplinary approach to establish the potential danger and risk of a list of nominated engineered nanoparticles. This includes research on the physicochemical properties of theparticles that may allow them to interact with biological substrates in humans and the environment. As part of this research, my laboratory has embarked on a predictive toxicological paradigm to classify material according to their potential to generate incremental levels of oxidative stress. As an example, we compared the known toxic effects of ambient ultrafine particles (air pollution) with manufactured titanium dioxide (TiO2), carbon black, fullerol and polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles (NP). The study was conducted in a phagocytic cell line (RAW 264.7) that is representative of a lung target for NP. Physicochemical characterization of the NP showed a dramatic change in their state of aggregation, dispersibility and charge during transfer from a buffered aqueous solution to cell culture medium. Particles differed with respect to cellular uptake, subcellular localization and ability to catalyze the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under biotic and abiotic conditions. Spontaneous ROS production was compared by using an ROS quencher (furfuryl alcohol) as well as an NADPH peroxidase bioelectrode platform. Among the particles tested, ambient UFP and cationic PS nanospheres were capable of inducing cellular ROS production, GSH depletion and toxic oxidative stress. This toxicity involves mitochondrial injury through increased calcium uptake and structural organellar damage. Although active under abiotic conditions, TiO2 and fullerol did not induce toxic oxidative stress. While increased TNF-α production could be seen to accompany UFP-induced oxidant injury, cationic PS nanospheres induced mitochondrial damage and cell death without inflammation. In summary, we demonstrate that ROS generation and oxidative stress is a valid test paradigm to compare NP toxicity. Although not all materials have electronic configurations or surface properties to allow spontaneous ROS generation, particle interactions with cellular components are capable of generating oxidative stress. This work has now being expanded to include additional nominated nanoparticles such as ZnO and Ce, as well as investigating toxic effects in other cell types.


Biography:

Andre Nel is a tenured Professor and practicing allergist/immunologist at UCLA. He runs the Cellular Immunology Activation Laboratory in the Johnson Cancer Center at UCLA. Dr. Nel obtained his M.B.,Ch.B. degree in Cape Town, South Africa, and subsequently did a post-doctoral fellowship in Immunology at MUSC, which was followed by doctoral thesis on his research. Dr. Nel's chief research interests are: (i) The role of air pollutants, including nanoparticles in asthma and atherosclerosis, with particular emphasis on the role of oxidative stress in the generation of airway and vascular inflammation ; (ii) Nanotoxicology, including nanomaterial properties that may lead to toxicity and nanomaterial safety testing. These studies are funded by personal RO1 grants from the NIH, as well as the NIAID-funded UCLA Asthma and Immunology Disease Center, of which Dr Nel is the Director. Dr. Nel is also co-director of the EPA-funded Southern California Particle Center. Dr Nel is the PI and Director of the UC lead campus for Nanotoxicology Research and Training Program. Dr. Nel is a member of the ASCI, AAAAI, AAI and the Western Association of Physicians. He served as Chair of the Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research Committee, one of the NIAID Study Sections for the review of Training Grants.



Daniel Nocera
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Lab Website

Energy Storage by Water-Splitting
Abstract Description:

The supply of secure, clean, sustainable energy is arguably the most important scientific and technical challenge facing humanity in the 21st century. Rising living standards of a growing world population will cause global energy consumption to increase dramatically over the next half century. Within our lifetimes, energy consumption will increase at least two-fold, from our current burn rate of 12.8 TW to 28 – 35 TW by 2050 (TW = 1012 watts). This additional energy needed, over the current 12.8 TW energy base, is simply not attainable from long discussed sources – these include nuclear, biomass, wind, geothermal and hydroelectric. The global appetite for energy is simply too much. Petroleum-based fuel sources (i.e., coal, oil and gas) could be increased. However, deleterious consequences resulting from external drivers of economy, the environment, and global security dictate that this energy need be met by renewable and sustainable sources.

Of the possible sustainable and renewable carbon-neutral energy sources, sunlight is preeminent. If photosynthesis can be duplicated outside of the leaf – an artificial photosynthesis if you will – then the sun's energy can be harnessed as a fuel. The combination of water and light from the sun can be used to produce hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen can then be combined with the oxygen in a fuel cell to give back water and energy. In the overall cycle, sunlight is converted to useful energy. But here is the catch. A response to this "grand challenge" of using water and sunlight to make a clean and sustainable fuel to power the planet faces a daunting endeavor - large expanses of fundamental molecular science await discovery for light-based energy conversion schemes to be enabled.

This talk will place the scale of the global energy issue in perspective and then discuss some of the basic science that is needed to emulate photosynthesis. With this basic science in place, the design of catalysts that produce hydrogen and oxygen from water will be presented.

Biography

Daniel G. Nocera is the W. M. Keck Professor of Energy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is widely recognized as a leading researcher in renewable energy at the molecular level. Nocera studies the basic mechanisms of energy conversion in biology and chemistry with primary focus in recent years on the photogeneration of hydrogen and oxygen from water. The overall water-splitting reaction requires the coupling of multielectron processes to protons, which are energetically uphill, thus requiring a light input. Nocera has pioneered each of these areas of science. Most examples of multielectron photoreactions have originated from his research group in the past decade. This work has relied on the generalization of the concept of two-electron mixed-valency in chemistry. He created the field of proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) at a mechanistic level with so that the electron and proton could be properly timed in the activation of small molecules of energy consequence. With the frameworks of multielectron chemistry and PCET in place, hydrogen- and oxygen-producing catalysts have been designed in the Nocera research group. Nocera's research in energy conversion has been featured on the nationally broadcast television programs, ABC Nightline and PBS NOVA in the US and Explora in Europe and radio shows such as NPR. He developed the pilot that was used to begin the new PBS science program ScienceNow and his PBS NOVA show was nominated for a 2006 Emmy Award. In 2005, he was awarded the Italgas Prize for his fundamental contributions to the development of renewable energy at the molecular level.

Nocera (born 3 July 1957) received his early education at Rutgers University where he was a Henry Rutgers Scholar, obtaining a B.S. degree in 1979 with Highest Honors. He moved to Pasadena, California where he began research on the electron transfer reactions of biological and inorganic systems with Professor Harry Gray at the California Institute of Technology. As a graduate student with Gray, he performed the first experiments on measuring the rates for electron transfer at fixed distances in proteins (cytochrome c). This work is widely recognized as beginning the field of biological electron transfer. After earning his Ph.D. degree in 1984, he went to East Lansing, Michigan to take up a faculty appointment at Michigan State University. He joined the faculty of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology as a Professor of Chemistry in 1997.



Peter Peumans
Stanford University
Lab Website

Improved switches using conformational feedback in zero- and one-dimensional field effect devices
Abstract Description:

CMOS has been the mainstream technology for almost everything electronic from enterprise-class server systems to consumer electronics for over 30 years. This phenomenal progress was made possible through the principles of device scaling. The drive toward higher performance, however, resulted in device technologies that are selectively scaled and therefore operate at increasingly higher power densities. It is therefore imperative to find solutions to reduce the off-state leakage current of active devices both for logic and memory devices as this will result in improved performance and minimized overall power consumption. We show how molecular conformational feedback can be used to modify the switching behavior of field effect devices with zero- and one-dimensional channels, resulting in much sharper switching characteristics than the limit of ln(10)kT/q (60 mV/decade at 300K) set by the thermionic emission mechanism. The improved switching behavior is attributable to positive feedback between the electrostatic and conformational degrees of freedom that is only present in zero- or one-dimensional channels. We will present model calculations and will discuss our experimental progress in demonstrating the predicted effects.

Biography

Peter Peumans is an assistant professor of Electrical Engineering and is an expert in organic device modeling and characterization. He has developed several efficient solar cell device architectures and has contributed to today's understanding of the mechanisms that play a role in organic solar cells. Dr. Peumans also contributed to the development of vapor phase deposition techniques that lend themselves to reel-to-reel processing of organic and organic/inorganic nanocomposite solar cells. Currently, his research focuses on low-cost and high-efficiency organic and inorganic solar cells, and the use of molecules in nanoscale electronics. Dr. Peumans holds 9 patents and is the recipient of an NSF CAREER award.



Theresa Reineke
University of Cincinnati
Lab Website

Synthetic Design and Biological Study of Glycopolymers for Cellular Gene Delivery and Imaging
Abstract Description:

Synthetic polymers are making a tremendous impact in many biomedical fields due to their potential to improve human health. In the emerging area of gene delivery and medical imaging, novel polymers are playing an important role in advancing these technologies. For instance, noninvasive materials that bind and compact nucleic acids into nanoparticles and effectively deliver exogenous genetic materials into cells may innovate therapeutic research and development. Likewise, polymeric MRI contrast agents are making a large impact in diagnostic medicine for detecting disease at an early stage. Here, we have created novel glycopolymers that are allowing us to probe the structure-property relationships for synthetic DNA delivery vehicles and MRI contrast agents. For DNA delivery purposes, we have created a series of carbohydrate-containing polyamides, termed poly(glycoamidoamine)s, that differ in the amount and stereochemistry of the hydroxyl groups (glucaramide, galactaramide, mannaramide, tartaramide) and the number of secondary amines (between 1-4) along the polymeric backbone. We have created this series to elucidate how these subtle structural changes within the polymer backbone affect DNA delivery efficiency and toxicity. Likewise, structurally-related glycopolymers have been created with alternating carbohydrate and diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-gadolinium chelates for MR imaging purposes. These structures have been created to determine the polymer structure-water proton relaxivity relationships. We have found that very subtle structural changes along the glycopolymer backbone can have a profound impact on the biological properties. The synthetic design of these structures along with their toxicity, DNA delivery efficiency, and water proton relaxivity values will be presented and discussed in detail.


Biography:

Theresa Reineke is an Assistant Professor of Chemistry at the University of Cincinnati. She is a materials chemist with research interests in polymers for biomedical applications and light-emitting materials. After receiving an undergraduate degree from the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire in 1995, she began her graduate studies at Arizona State University (MS degree) and The University of Michigan (PhD degree) with Dr. Omar Yaghi studying the synthesis and characterization of metal-organic luminescent extended framework materials. After completing her Ph.D. in 2000, she was awarded a National Institutes of Health Fellowship to study the synthesis and biological characterization of carbohydrate-containing polymers for gene therapy in the laboratory of Dr. Mark E. Davis at the California Institute of Technology. In 2002 she joined the faculty at the University of Cincinnati. She studies the synthesis of carbohydrate-containing polymers and dendrimers that self-assemble with DNA and delivery genetic material into cells for gene therapy. In addition, her group is developing new polymers for using in magnetic resonance imaging and luminescent porous molecules for use as sensors.



Debra R. Rolison
Naval Research Laboratory
Lab Website

Architectural Nanoscience en route to the Integrated Multifunction Necessary for Enhanced Energy Storage and Conversion
Abstract Description:

No power = No Mission ... and many key military (and commercial) portable power sources-batteries, fuel cells, supercapacitors-are based on electrochemical principles. These devices must optimally balance multiple functions (molecular mass transport, ionic/electronic/thermal conductivity, and electron-transfer kinetics) even though these functions often require contradictory solid-state structures. The fundamental processes that produce or store energy can now be rethought in light of architectural nanoscience, i.e., the design and fabrication of three-dimensional multifunctional architectures from appropriate nanoscale building blocks, including the use of aperiodic "nothing" (void space) and deliberate disorder as design components. Nothing, i.e., porosity, is an important part of any nanostructured material that does chemistry. Rate-critical reactions are most effective when the transport paths by which molecules move into a power-generating architecture are included as an integral part of the design. Such advanced architectures can now be created in which the pore and solid structural components are controlled on the nanoscale by the use of sol-gel syntheses to yield rapid diffusional flux of reactants/analytes/substrates to internal surfaces. Aperiodic nanoarchitectures derived through soft chemistry provide a flexible research platform to study energy storage/conversion chemistry. Our research into these structures indicates that physicochemical defects act as important parameters in increasing performance of electrochemically derived power sources (i.e., improved energy capacity or rates of fuel oxidation). Understanding and maintaining disorder, the typical state exhibited by aerogel-related nanoarchitectures, in balance with order (e.g., to move electronic charge) are goals that require enormous advances in fundamental science. Fundamental insight into the complexity innate to disordered systems-and the ability to control and pin highly functional disorder on the nanoscale-will directly translate into the design of higher performance electrochemical power devices.


Biography:

Rolison received a Ph.D. in Chemistry from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1980 and immediately joined the Naval Research Laboratory as a staff scientist; she currently heads the Advanced Electrochemical Materials section and is also an Adjunct Full Professor of Chemistry at the University of Utah. Her research at the NRL focuses on multifunctional nanoarchitectures for catalytic chemistries, energy storage and conversion, biomolecular composites, porous magnets, and sensors. She is a Fellow of AAAS and of AWIS. Rolison writes and lectures widely on issues affecting women in science. In 2000, she proposed using Title IX, which prohibits discrimination in any educational "program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance", to evaluate academic Science & Engineering departments. Her strategy was echoed in the 2004 General Accountability Office report Women's Participation in the Sciences Has Increased, but Agencies Need to Do More to Ensure Compliance with Title IX



Nora Savage
US Environmental Protection Agency
Lab Website

Nanotechnology – Potential Environmental Benefits and Risks
Abstract Description:

Nanotechnologies and nanomaterials are expected to provide major environmental benefits in the following areas: treatment and minimization of generated wastes from chemical and manufacturing processes; cost-effective remediation of contaminated environmental sites and waste-streams; development of real-time, sensitive environmental sensors for atmospheric, aquatic and sediment/soil environments; and development of environmentally benign alternatives to chemical and engineering processes. Consequently the development and use of nanotechnology will have a dramatic impact on modern society, as a result of its potential to substantially improve the characteristics and/or performance of a number of commercial product applications including, but certainly not limited to, cosmetics, microelectronics, energy generation and distribution, food processing, and building construction. Governments, industry and academia are excited about potential benefits that may arise. However, there is also an acknowledgement of the need to understand and consider potential human health and environmental issues.

Concerns surrounding nanotechnology include toxicity, bioaccumulation, biopersistence, biotransformation, environmental fate, transport, and exposure information that currently have n been well specified or quantified. This talk will describe internal EPA efforts to enable the Agency to continue to protect human health and the environment, including the development of a prioritized research strategy for nanotechnology. In addition, Agency collaboration and coordination efforts with other nanotechnology stakeholders, including state, federal, and local government organizations, civic and industrial associations, and international organizations will be described.

Biography:

Nora obtained her bachelors degree in Chemical Engineering in May 1992 from Prairie View A&M University, in Prairie View, Texas. She received two Masters degrees - one in Environmental Engineering and one in Environmental Science- from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, in Madison, Wisconsin in May 1995, and a doctoral degree in Environmental Science from the same institution in August 2000. She was employed by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources in the Air Monitoring Division for seven years in Madison while attending graduate school. In addition, she worked as a mentor/counselor for both high school and undergraduate students through involvement in various educational programs at UW-Madison, including serving as a Counselor for the Ronald E. McNair Program. Upon completion of her doctorate, she obtained a one-year post-doctoral research associate position at Howard University, in Washington DC, where she taught a senior-level Civil Engineering class and worked on various educational initiatives at the graduate school. Her current position is that of environmental engineer at the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Washington, DC in the Office of Research and Development. Her focus areas include nanotechnology, pollution prevention and life cycle approaches for emerging technologies. She is one of the Agency representatives on the Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology subcommittee of the National Science and Technology Council that implements the activities and strategies of the National Nanotechnology Initiative. Other activities include serving as the Vice Chair of one of the Technical Coordinating Committees in the Air & Waste Management Association, involvement in various other technical and scientific organizations, and writing. She has authored or co-authored several articles on nanotechnology in leading journals, including the Journal of Nanoparticle Research and Toxicological Sciences.

Currently, she serves as the lead for the EPA's internal effort to develop a nanotechnology research strategy. Her primary responsibility in this role involves developing opportunities to enable the EPA to continue to protect human health and the environment in a proactive way as nanotechnology and engineered nanomaterials continue to develop and evolve. Efforts to accomplish this goal include coordinating an intramural team established to develop a specific, prioritized research strategy and formulating solicitations for extramural research support that meets current and future Agency policy and regulatory needs; coordinating research priorities and needs with other agencies to ensure critical research gaps are met and duplication avoided; and forming collaborations and liaisons with EPA staff and representatives from other federal agencies, academia and industry to ensure stakeholder concerns are articulated and considered.



Molly Shoichet
University of Toronto
Lab Website

Biology-Inspired Polymer Design in Targeted Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering
Abstract Description:

My lab is focused on biology-inspired polymer design - that is materials designed to meet a clinical need, specifically in the areas of cancer and spinal cord injury. For cancer, we are pursuing a targeted drug delivery strategy and for spinal cord injury we are pursuing a localized delivery strategy as well as a tissue engineering strategy. In this seminar I will highlight the advances that we are making in targeted delivery using a novel, self-assembling, biodegradable polymeric system and a new way of derivatizing these nanoparticles with antibodies. I will also highlight some of the innovative 3D patterning methodologies that we are pursuing with the goal of guiding cell adhesion and axonal outgrowth.


Biography:

Dr. Molly Shoichet holds the Canada Research Chair in Tissue Engineering and is a Professor of Chemical Engineering & Applied Chemistry, Chemistry and Biomaterials & Biomedical Engineering at the University of Toronto. Dr. Shoichet is the recipient of such prestigious distinctions as NSERC's Steacie Fellowship, CIAR's Young Explorer's Award (to the top 20 scientists under 40 in Canada), CSChE's Syncrude Innovation Award, Canada's Top 40 under 40™ and the University of Toronto's McLean Award. She is an expert in the study of Polymers for Regeneration – that is materials that promote healing in the body, specifically for nerve regeneration.

Dr. Shoichet's research has commercial appeal. Her laboratory has numerous patents published and pending on drug delivery and scaffold design. She is a leading expert in fluoropolymer synthesis and applications for industrial coatings. Dr. Shoichet founded Matregen Corp, a spin-off focused on drug delivery and based on a polymer processing platform technology invented in her laboratory and previously co-founded BoneTec Corp, also a spin-off from her laboratory.

Dr. Shoichet received her S.B. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Chemistry (1987) and her Ph.D. from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst in Polymer Science and Engineering (1992). She worked at CytoTherapeutics Inc on encapsulated cell therapy before being recruited to the University of Toronto in 1995. Dr. Shoichet has published over 220 papers, patents and abstracts and has been invited to speak at over 130 institutions worldwide.



John Turner
National Renewable Engergy Laboratory
Lab Website

Semiconductor Materials and Tandem Cells for Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production
Abstract Description:

The direct photoelectrochemical (PEC) splitting of water is a one-step process for the production of H2 using solar irradiation; water is split directly upon illumination. This direct conversion system utilizes the process where an illuminated semiconductor material immersed in aqueous solution is used to decompose water directly. Light is absorbed in the semiconductor and water is split at the semiconductor surface. The key is to match the material properties of the light-harvesting semiconductor with a catalyst that can efficiently collect the energy and direct it towards the water splitting reaction. The simplest PEC based direct water splitting system would consist of an illuminated single gap semiconductor having a bandgap greater than 1.6 electron volts coupled to a surface catalyst immersed in an aqueous solution. To date, no semiconducting material has been discovered that simultaneously meets all the criteria required for efficient hydrogen production via light-driven direct water splitting. Whilst considerable work has been directed at metal oxides due to their expected stability, little thought has been given to the understanding that efficient photoelectrochemical (PEC) devices must have the same fundamental internal quantum efficiency as high efficiency PV devices. Chalcopyrite materials such as CuGaSe2 are known to have high PV conversion efficiencies making them appealing candidates for PEC water splitting. CuGaSe2, with an energy gap close to 1.7eV, is at the lower end of the desired band gap range for water splitting materials but nonetheless of interest. The III-V nitride materials have shown excellent stability as evidenced by corrosion analysis, however they show a significant decrease in overall conversion efficiency as compared to other III-Vs. This report will summarize our efforts on these materials and their application to tandem cells for photoelectrochemical water splitting. The implications for nanotechnology for addressing metal oxides will also be discussed.





Benjamin Wu
UCLA CNSI
Lab Website

Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine
Abstract Description:

Regenerative medicine aims to regenerate tissues by the purposeful manipulation of stem cells, biomaterials, biochemical signals, and biomechanical environment to recapitulate aspects of embryonic development and wound healing. This talk will highlight some of the exciting biomimetic tissue engineering strategies that are being utilized for tissue regeneration. This talk will introduce one promising strategy to confer bioactive surface to induce bone formation with biomimetic apatites which self-assemble to form ordered calcium phosphate minerals under near-physiological conditions. This self-assembly process may be controlled to alter microtopography and concomitant biological properties. Besides being similar to natural apatites found in human bone, these biomimetic apatites have been shown to mediate and promote bone regeneration in normal wound healing. Despite the vast interest in these materials, relatively little is known about its detailed formation mechanism, and even less is known about its precise biological interactions during wound repair (e.g. how do they mediate various signal transduction pathways). This talk summarizes the current understanding of the biomimetic apatites which self assemble from supersaturated ionic solutions, the apatite induced biological response; and concludes with a set of key questions which are important toward a more satisfactory understanding of these exciting materials.


Biography:

Prof. Ben Wu received his D.D.S. from the University of Pacific, his advanced prosthodontics specialty certificate at the Harvard School of Dental Medicine, and his Ph.D. in Materials Science and Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is currently Associated Professor and Vice Chair of the UCLA Department of Bioengineering, with joint appointment in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and in the School of Dentistry at UCLA. Prof. Wu is Co-Director of the Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology, and a member of the UCLA Brain Research Institute, the California NanoSystems Institute, and the Academy of Prosthodontics.



Eli Yablonovitch
UCLA CNSI
Lab Website

The Transistor Will Have to be Replaced by a Low Voltage Switch
Abstract Description:

In contemplating the headlong rush toward miniaturization represented by Moore's Law, it is tempting to think only of the progression toward molecular sized components.

There is a second aspect of Moore's Law, that is sometimes overlooked. Because of miniaturization, the energy efficiency of information processing steadily improves. We anticipate that the energy required to process a single bit of information will eventually become as tiny as 1 electron Volt per function, truly indeed a molecular sized energy. Inevitably most logic functions including storage, readout, and other logical manipulations will eventually be that efficient. However there is one information-processing-function that bucks this trend. That is communication, especially over short distances. Our best projections of improvements in the short distance communication function show that it will still require hundreds of thousand of electron Volts, just to move a bit of information the tiny distance of only 10 micro meters.

Why this energy per bit discrepancy for communications? It is caused by the difference in voltage scale between the wires and the transistor switches. Transistors are thermally activated, leading to a characteristic voltage >>kT/q. Wires are long and they have a low impedance, allowing them to operate efficiently at 1milli-Volt. The challenge then is to replace transistors with a new low-voltage switch, that is better matched to the wires. I will present some of the technical options for such a new switch.


Biography:

Eli Yablonovitch graduated with the Ph.D. degree in Applied Physics from Harvard University in 1972. He worked for two years at Bell Telephone Laboratories, and then became a professor of Applied Physics at Harvard. In 1979 he joined Exxon to do research on photovoltaic solar energy. Then in 1984, he joined Bell Communications Research, where he was a Distinguished Member of Staff, and also Director of Solid-State Physics Research. In 1992 he joined the University of California, Los Angeles, where he is now the Northrop Grumman Opto-Electronics Chair, Professor of Electrical Engineering. He is a Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, the Optical Society of America, and the American Physical Society. Yablonovitch is a Life Member of Eta Kappa Nu, and a Member of the National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy of Sciences. He has been awarded the Adolf Lomb Medal, the W. Streifer Scientific Achievement Award, the R.W. Wood Prize, and the Julius Springer Prize. His other honors are listed in the Awards section below. Yablonovitch was a Founder of the W/PECS series of Photonic Crystal International Workshops that began in 1999. (PECS VI will be held in Crete in June 2005.) His work has covered a broad variety of topics: nonlinear optics, laser-plasma interaction, infrared laser chemistry, photovoltaic energy conversion, strained-quantum-well lasers, and chemical modification of semiconductor surfaces. Currently his main interests are in optoelectronics, high speed optical communications, high efficiency light-emitting diodes and nano-cavity lasers, photonic crystals at optical and microwave frequencies, quantum computing and quantum communication.



Omar Yaghi
UCLA CNSI
Lab Website

Pores without Walls for Clean Energy
Abstract Description:

Reticular chemistry concerns the linking of molecular building blocks into predetermined structures using strong bonds. We have been working on developing the conceptual and practical basis of this new area of research. As a result, new classes of crystalline porous materials have been designed and synthesized: metal-organic frameworks, covalent organic frameworks, and zeolitic imidazolate frameworks. Crystals of this type have exceptional surface areas (2,000-6,000 m2/g) and take up voluminous amounts of hydrogen (7.5 wt% at 77 K and 30-40 bar), methane (50% at 298K and 25 bar), and carbon dioxide (140 wt% at 298 K and 30 bar); the first is considered the clean fuel of the future and the latter two are considered greenhouse gases. This presentation will outline the design concepts of these materials, their synthesis and applications.


Biograhy:

Omar M. Yaghi was born in Amman, Jordan (1965). He received his B.S. in chemistry from the State University of New York-Albany (1985) and his Ph.D. from the University of Illinois-Urbana (1990) with Professor Walter G. Klemperer. From 1990-92, he was an NSF Postdoctoral Fellow at Harvard University with Professor Richard H. Holm. He joined the faculty at Arizona State University in 1992 and was awarded the ACS-Exxon Solid-State Chemistry Award in 1998. In June 1999, he moved to the University of Michigan as a Professor of Chemistry and was awarded the Robert W. Parry Collegiate Chair by the Chemistry Department at UM, and the Sacconi Medal by the Inorganic Division of the Italian Chemical Society. Since January 2006 he has been the Christopher S. Foote Professor of Chemistry and Biochemistry at UCLA and the Director of the Center for Reticular Chemistry at the California NanoSystems Institute, UCLA. He has established several research programs dealing with the reticular synthesis of discrete polyhedra and extended frameworks from purely organic, inorganic, and metal-organic building blocks for their applications in clean energy, catalysis, gas storage and separation technologies.



Wei-xian Zhang
Lehigh University
Lab Website

Nanoscale Zero-valent Iron for Environmental Remediation: Materials and Environmental Chemsitry
Abstract Description:

Zero-valent iron nanoparticle technology is becoming an increasingly popular choice for treatment of hazardous and toxic wastes, and for remediation of contaminated sites. Recent innovations in nanoparticle synthesis and production have resulted in substantial cost reductions and increased availability of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) for large-scale applications. In the U.S. alone, more than 20 projects have been completed since 2001. More are planned or ongoing in North America, Europe and Asia. The diminutive size of the iron nanoparticles helps to foster effective subsurface dispersion while their large specific surface area corresponds to enhanced reactivity for rapid contaminant transformation. In this presentation, recent progress on nZVI synthesis and characterization are highlighted. Applications of nZVI for treatment of both organic and inorganic contaminants are discussed. Key issues related to field applications such as fate/transport and potential environmental impact are also explored.


Biography:

Dr. Zhang is associate professor of environmental engineering, nanotechnology and advanced materials at Lehigh University. He teaches Introduction to Environmental Engineering, Hazardous Waste treatment and Management, and also Environmental Nanotechnology.

Dr. Zhang's research group has pioneered the research on iron nanoparticles for environmental remediation. His research group published the early work on the synthesis of nanoscale iron particles in 1997 and the first field application in 2000. He was the co-author of the first feature article on Environmental Nanotechnology published by Environmental Science & Technology in March 2003. He served as co-editor for the first special issue on environmental nanotechnology published by Environmental Science & Technology in March 2005.

Dr. Zhang is the recipient of National Science Foundation's CAREER Award (2000) and Lehigh University's Class 1961 Professorship (2001). Dr. Zhang received his Ph.D. in Environmental Engineering from the Johns Hopkins University (1995).